UTI enjoyed a monopoly in the Indian mutual fund market until 1987, when a host of other government-controlled Indian financial companies established their own funds, including State Bank of India, Canara Bank, and Punjab National Bank. This market was made open to private players in 1993, as a result of the historic constitutional amendments brought forward by the then Congress-led government under the existing regime of Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization (LPG). The first private sector fund to operate in India was Kothari Pioneer, which later merged with Franklin Templeton. In 1996, SEBI, the regulator of mutual funds in India, formulated the Mutual Fund Regulation which is a comprehensive regulatory framework.
Deposit being available in the market less than 10% of Indian households have invested in mutual funds. A recent report on Mutual Fund Investments in India published by research and analytics firm, Boston Analytics, suggests investors are holding back from putting their money into mutual funds due to their perceived high risk and a lack of information on how mutual funds work. There are 46 Mutual Funds as of June 2013.
The primary reason for not investing appears to be correlated with city size. Among respondents with a high savings rate, close to 40% of those who live in metros and Tier I cities considered such investments to be very risky, whereas 33% of those in Tier II cities said they did not know how or where to invest in such assets.